Short QT Syndrome Patients

Miscellaneous

Rapid Ventricular Repolarization in Rodents: Electrocardiographic Manifestations, Molecular Mechanisms, and Clinical Insights. Gussak I, Chaitman BR, Kopecky SL, Nerbonne JM. J Electrocardiol 2000:33(2):159-170

This article examines specific ECG and EP features of ventricular repolarization in rats and mice, and the role of depolarization-activated potassium-currents in mediating the unique features of ECG recordings in these rodents. The authors points out that the absence of a distinct isoelectric interval between the QRS complex and the T wave, accompanied by a relatively short QT interval, are common features of ECG recordings in mice and rats, but not in ECGs in guinea pigs.

Short QT: A New Electrocardiographic Pattern Related to Familial Sudden Death. Gaita F, Giustetto C, Bianchi F, Riccardi R, Grossi S, Richiardi E. JACC 2003:4;818-3(Supplement A)

Abstract of presentation from Torino, Italy at the ACC meeting in 2003 of the first family with a short QT interval and high incidence of sudden cardiac death.

The Year in Electrophysiology Zipes DP.. JACC 2004;43(7):1305-1314

The first time Short QT Syndrome is mentioned along side other forms of channelopathies in a yearly review of advances in cardiac electrophysiology in JACC.

Atrial fibrillation in the setting of familial short QT interval. Bjerregaard P, Gussak I. Heart Rhythm 2004;S165(522)

Poster presentation of the discovery of short QT syndrome.

Mutation in the KCNQ1 Gene Leading to the Short-QT-Interval Syndrome. Bellocq C, van Ginneken A, Bezzina CR, Alders M, Escande D, Mannens MM, Baro I, Wilde AA. Circulation 2004;110(17):1105

Abstract of presentation from Nantes, France and Amsterdam, The Netherlands at the AHA meeting in 2004 of the first patient with a KCNQ1 gene mutation leading to the Short-QT-Interval Synrome.

Potential Treatment of Congenital Short QT Syndrome: Response to Oral Quinidine Wolpert C, Schimpf R, Gaita F, Bianchi F, Riccardi R. Circulation 2004;110(17):1106

Abstract of presentation from Mannheim, Germany and Turin, Italy at the AHA meeting in 2004.

Prevalence of Very Short QT Intervals in Patients with Idiopathic Ventricular Fibrillation and Implanted ICD Filipecki A, Trusz-Giuza M, Lubinski A. Circulation 2004;110(17):2350

Abstract of presentation from Katowice and Gdansk in Poland of a retrospective analysis of ECGs from 42 patients with structurally normal hearts who had survived sudden cardiac death and diagnosed with idiopathic cardiomyopathy.Five patients or 12% were found to have QTc intervals =/< than 300 msec leading the authors to conclude: “the presence of short QT interval is not rare in patients with idiopathic ventricular fibrillation”.

Unfortunately no ECGs were shown during the presentation, and the authors made the mistake defining short QT interval based upon QTc corrected by Bazett’s formula, and not upon an uncorrected QT interval measured at a heart rate close to 60 bpm. (Unfortunately, the patients heart rates were not mentioned in the abstract). The conclusion from this study was, therefore, most likely incorrect, and no other study has since found such a high incidence of short QT interval in patients with idiopathic VF.

Clinical Presentation of the Patients with Short QT Syndrome Giustetto C, Wolpert C, Anttonen OM, Shragia P, Leone G, Schimpf R, Borggrefe M, Leclercq JF, Haissaguerre M, Gaita F.. Heart Rhythm 2005;2(5):AB31-3

Abstract of presentation from six European centers of the clinical presentation of 27 patients with Short QT Syndrome.

Clinical Presentation of the Patients with Short QT Syndrome Schimpf R, Giustetto C, Bjerregaard P, Gaita F, Gussak I, Borggrefe M, Wolpert C. Heart Rhythm 2005;2(5):AB34-6

Abstract of presentation from Mannheim, Germany, Asti, Italy and Saint Louis, USA of clinical follow-up of 9 patients with Short QT Syndrome.

A Novel Inherited Syndrome of Short QT Interval, Malignant Ventricular Arrhythmias and Familial Clustering of Otosclerosis. Anttonen OM, Silvola J, Kokkonen L, Brugada R, Junttila J, Hong K, Huikuri HV. Heart Rhythm 2005;2(5):P2-118.

Abstract of poster presentation from Finland of 3 members in a family with Short QT Syndrome. While 3 brothers to one of the members had otosclerosis the question was raised, whether there might be a connection between otosclerosis and a short QT interval. Genetic testings were negative.

Short QT Syndrome – 5 Years of Progress Gussak I, Bjerregaard P. J Electrocardiol 2005;38:375-377

Association of KCNQ1, KCNE1, KCNH2 and SCN5A polymorphisms with QTc interval length in a healthy population Gouas L, Nicaud V, Berthet M, Forhan A, Tiret L, Balkau B, Guicheney P and the D.E.S.I.R Study Group.. European Journal of Human Genetics 2005;13:1213-1222

Genetic analysis in 200 subjects with the longest and the shortest QTc from a cohort of 2008 healthy subjects suggest, that genetic determinants located in KCNQ1, KCNE1, KCNH2 and SCN5A influence QTc length in healthy individuals and may represent risk factors for arrhythmias or cardiac sudden death in patients with cardiovascular disease.

Long QT Syndrome with Cardiac Arrest and Transient Short QT sue to a Novel KCNH2 Mutation causing both Loss and Gain of Function .De Ferrari GM, Crotti L, Lundquist AL, Pedrazzini M, Insolia R, Ferrandi C, Vicentini A, Vaccari D, Schwartz PJ, George Jr. ALHeart Rhythm 2005;2(5):P2-35

An 18-year old female with recurrent syncope and long QT (QTc 500 ms). While Holtermonitored during syncope with seizures she revealed the presence of a long episode (105 sec) of Torsades des Pointes VT preceded by ventricular bigeminy with marked repolarization changes. At termination of the VT, a phase of atrial fibrillation with slow ventricular response and an extremely short QT interval (QTc 250 ms).Molecular screening disclosed a novel KCNH2 mutation causing an inframe deletion of a conserved lysine residue in the S6 segment. Heterologous expression of the deletion allele alone did not produce current, while coexpression with WT-HERG resulted in channels exhibiting a substantial shift in the voltage-dependence of activation to more hyperpolarized potentials. This results in significantly larger tail currents at negative potential and in significantly smaller tail currents at positive potential, compared with WT-HERG. This pattern of channel dysfunction, either loss or gain of function in a voltage dependent manner, can account for the peculiar ECG features exhibited by the patient.

These results illustrate the potential for phenotype overlap between the long and the short QT syndrome.

Short QT Interval and Atrial Fibrillation in Patients without Structural Heart Disease. Poglajen G, Fister M, Radovancevic B, Vrtovec B. JACC 2006;47(9):1905-1907

Letter to the editor.

The authors compared the QTc intervals in 165 consecutive healthy subjects presenting with an episode of AF to the QTc intervals in 165 age-and gender matched subjects without evidence of arrhythmias. Short QTc interval (<400 ms) was an independent predictor of AF occurrence in multivariate analysis with QTc intervals in patients with AF significantly shorter than in the control group.

The authors speculate whether pathophysiological mechanisms that lead to shortening of the QT interval (even of mild degree) might also play an important role in genesis of AF in structurally normal hearts.

Long QT syndrome and short QT syndrome: how to make correct diagnosis and what about eligibility for sports activity Napolitano C, Bloise R, Priori SG.. J Cardiovasc Med 2006;7(4): 251-256

At the time of this article only 23 cases of SQTS from six different families had been reported. The article, therefore, mainly addresses issues regarding LQTS.

Possible Increased Risk of Cardiac Arrhythmias in Patients with Acguired Short QT Interval Assadi R. Chang R. Abdipour A, Pai SM, Jutzy KR.. JACC 2007;March 6:836-6

Abstract from a presentation at the ACC meeting in 2007.

Electrocardiographic Biomarkers of Ventricular Repolarisation in a Single Family of Short QT Syndrome and the Role of the Bazett Correction Formula Extramiana F, Maury P, Maison-Blanche P, Duparc A, Delay M, Leenhardt A.. Am J Cardiol 2008;101:855-860

Based upon ECG recordings from 27 members of a family where one had survived an episode of SCD in the setting of SQTS it was concluded, that the Bazett correction formula is not appropriate for making a diagnosis of SQTS. Based upon their definition of SQTS (QT ≤ 320 msec and QTc ≤ 340 msec), three additional members were considered to have SQTS and a high number (16) had shorter than normal QT interval and classified as suspected SQTS (ECG-based QT was ≤ 320 msec and/or QTc Bazett interval was > 340 msec and ≤ 380 msec).

A big limitation of this study is the lack of genotyping.

(The index case, his brothers and his mother have been described previously by Maury P et al in Heart Rhythm 2005;2:1135-1137)

Electromechanical Coupling in Patients with the Short QT Syndrome: Further Insights into the Mechanoelectrical Hypothesis of the U Wave Schimpf R, Antzelevitch C, Haghi D, Giustetto C, Pizzuti A, Gaita F, Veltmann C, Wolpert C, Borggrefe M.. Heart Rhythm 2008;5:241-245

Echocardiography and electrocardiography was performed in 5 SQTS patients from 2 unrelated families with a history of SCD and 5 age-matched and gender matched control subjects. In SQTS patients the end of the T wave preceded aortic valve closure by 111 +/- 30 ms compared to –12 +/- 11 ms in control subjects. The interval from aortic valve closure to the beginning of the U wave was 8 +/- 4 ms in SQTS patients and 15 +/- 11 ms in controls. Thus the inscription of the U wave in SQTS patients coincided with aortic valve closure and isovolumetric relaxation, supporting the hypothesis that the U wave is related to mechanical stretch.

Thus, substantial stretch during isovolumetric phase may induce local membrane repolarization, generating a voltage gradient in the left ventricular myocardium detected as the U wave in the surface ECG.

U Wave Emerges from Obscurity when the Heart Pumps like in a Kangaroo. Surawicz B. Heart Rhythm 2008:5:246-247

Editorial commentary to the previous article.

IK1: The Long and the Short QT of it. Gross GJ Heart Rhythm 2006;3(3):336-338

Editorial commentary to an article about the Anderson-Tawil long-QT syndrome which is linked to a KCNJ2 mutation leading to a loss of function of the Kir2.1 potassium channel (IK1). The opposite with gain of function leading to Short QT Syndrome described by Priori SG et al in 2005, is mentioned.

Short and long QT syndromes: does QT length really matter Couderc J-P, Lopes CM.? Journal of Electrocardiology 2010;43:396-399

IK1 and Cardiac Hypoxia: After the Long and the Short QT Syndromes, what else can go wrong with the Inward Rectifier K+ Currents? Xu Y, Zhang Q, Chianvimonvat NJ Mol Cell Cardiol 2007;43:15-17

Editorial commentary to an article by Pia et al: Cardiac _I_K1 underlies early action potential shortening during hypoxia in the mouse heart. J Moll Cell Cardiol 2007.

Differences in twelve-lead electrocardiogram netween symptomatic and asymptomatic subjects with short QT interval. Anttonen O, Junttila MJ, Maury P, Schimpf R, Wolpert C, Borggrefe M, Giustetto C, Gaita F, Sacher F, Haïssaguerre M, Sbregia P, Brugada R, Huikuri HVHeart Rhythm 2009;6:267-271

Creative Concepts.

hERG1 channel activators: A new anti-arrhythmic principle. Grunnet M, Hansen RS, Olesen S-P Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology 2008;98:347-362

Review. The authors explain how anti-arrhythmic drugs, which may shorten the QT interval, works, but at the same agree that a fly in this ointment is the Short QT Syndrome. They are, however, able to point out important conceptual differences between the Short QT Syndrome and the hERG channel activation.

T-Wave morphology in short QT syndrome Anttonen O, Junttila J, Giustetto C, Gaita F, Linna E, Karsikas M, Seppänen T, Perkiömäki JS, Mäkikallio TH, Brugada R, Huikuri HV.. Ann Noninvasive Electrocardiol 2009;14(3):202-207

Study in 10 subjects with Short QT Syndrome that suggests that patients with a short QT interval and a history of arrhythmic events have abnormal T-wave loop parameters.

Brugada and Short QT Syndromes Triedman JK.. PACE 2009;32:S58-S62

Brief review of two rare forms of channelopathies, that may result in sudden cardiac arrest, with emphasis on therapy and risk stratification.

Risk stratification in electrical cardiomyopathies. Veltmann C, Schimpf R, Borggrefe M, Wolpert C Herz 2009;34(7):518-527

LQTS, SQTS, Brugada Syndrome and CPVT are included in this review article.

The Genetic Basis of Long QT and Short QT Syndromes: A Mutation Update. Hedley PL, Jørgensen P, Schlamowitz S, Wangari R, Moolman-Smook J, Brink PA, Kanters JK, Corfield VA, Christiansen M. Hum Mutat 2009;30:1486-1511

How the heart can fibrillate: When diversity is a disadvantage.Lazzara R Heart Rhythm 2010;7:258-259

In this Editorial Comment to an article by Nof E et al. entitled: Cellular basis for atrial fibrillation in an experimental model of SQTS1: implications for a pharmacologic approach to therapy. Heart Rhythm 2010;7:251-257, the author discusses ways atrial fibrillation is initiated and maintained not only in patients with SQTS.

Diagnostic Miscues in Congenital Long-QT Syndrome. Taggart NW, Haglund CM, Tester DJ, Ackerman MJCirculation 2007;115:2613-2620

Even though this article is about LQTS and not SQTS there are many similarities between the two syndromes in making the right diagnoses and especially the right interpretation of the QT interval. The authors found that diagnostic concordance was present for less than one third of patients who sought a second opinion regarding the diagnosis of LQTS.

The Short QT Syndrome. Proposed Diagnostic Criteria. Gollob MH, Redpath CJ, Roberts JDJ AM Coll Cardiol 2011;57:802-12

From 15 articles describing unique cases of SQTS the authors reviewed 61 SQTS cases as a basis for a scoring system to assist in making the diagnosis of SQTS.

A ‘Schwartz score’ for short QT Syndrome Veltman C, Borggrefe M.. Nat Rev. Cardiol. 2011;8:251-252

Several possible limitations of the score system proposed by Gollob et al. are discussed. The lack of a control group of ‘normal’ individuals with shorter than normal QTc intervals is pointed out and it is stressed that at best the scoring system can do is to estimate the probability of having the disease, not to make the diagnosis. Also the omission of using data from an electrophysiological study or exercise testing in the scoring system is emphasized.

Proposed Diagnostic Criteria for Short QT Syndrome Are Badly Founded Bjerregaard P.. J Am Coll Cardiol 2011;58:549-550

In this letter to the editor of JACC several errors in the article by Gollob et al is pointed out, and the limitations of using Bazett’s formula to correct the QT interval in patients with possible SQTS emphasized. It is the opinion of the author: “that the proposed diagnostic criteria for SQTS are poorly founded and should be used with great caution”.

Congenital Short QT Syndrome: Landmarks of the Newest Arrhythmogenic Cardiac Channelopathy Riera ARP, Paixão-Almeida A, Barbosa-Barros R, Yanowitz FG, Baranchuk A, Dubner S, Chagas ACP.. Cardiol J 2013;20(5):464-471

Chronological historical review which shows how new scientific discoveries have gradually brought clarity to this new form of channelopathy called SQTS. The authors points out several important limitations in diagnostic criteria for making the diagnosis of SQTS proposed by Gollob MH et al in JACC 2011;57:802-812

Congenital Long and Short QT Syndromes Brenyo AJ, Huang DT, Aktas MK.. Cardiology 2012;122:237-247

The Measurement of the QT interval Pieter G. Postema, Arthur A. M. Wilde.Curr Cardiol Rev 2014;10(3):287-294

Novel Insight into the Natural History of Short QT Syndrome. Andrea Mazzanti, Ajita Kanthan, Nicola Monteforte, Mirella Memmi, Raffaella B;oise, Valeria Novelli,Carlotta Miceli, Sean O’Rourke, Gianluca Borio, Agnieszka Ziennncluk-Krajka, Antonio Curcio, Andreas Elena, Surducan, Mario Colombo, Carlo Napolitano, Silvia G. Priori. J Am Coll Cardiol . 2014;63(13):1300-1308

Inherited arrhythmias: The cardiac channelopathies. Shashank P. Behere, Steven N. Weindling. Ann Pediatr. Cardiol. 2015; 8(3):210-220

Criteria for short QT interval based on a new QT-heart rate adjustment formula. Simon W. Rabkin. J Arrhythm. 2017 ; 33(5): 525-527

Electrophysiological mechanisms of long and short QT syndromes. Tse G, Chan YWF, Keung W, Yan BP. Int J Cardiol Heart Vasc. 2017;14:8-13

Shortening of the Short Redractory Periods in Short QT Syndrome. Anne Rollin, Estelle Grandjbakhch, Carla Giustetto, Chlara Scrocco, Carole Fourcade, Benjamin Monteil, Pierre Mondoly, Christelle Cardin, Carole Maupain, Philippe Maury. J Am Heart Assoc. 2017 Jun; 6(6).

Loss-of-activity-mutation in the cardiac chloride-bicarbonate exchanger AE3 causes short QT syndrome. Kasper Thorsen, Vibeke S. Dam, Kasper Kjaer Sorensen, Lisbeth N. Pedersen, V. Arvydas Skebernis, Jonas Jurevicius, Rimantis Treinys, Ida M. B. S. Petersen, Morten S. Nielsen, Claus Oxvig, J. Preben Morth, Vladimir V. Matchkov, Christian Aalkjaer, Henning Bundgaard, Henrik K. Jensen, Nat Commun 2017;8:1696

Computational Analysis of the Mode of Action of Disopyramide and Quinidine on hERG-Linked Short QT Syndrome in Human Ventricles. Dominic G Whittaker, Haibo Ni, Alan P. Benson, Jules C. Hancox, Henggui Zhang,Sci Rep 2017;8:759

Novel trigenic CACNA1C/DES/MYPN mutations in a family of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with early repolarization and Short QT Syndrome. Yanhong Chen, Hector-Barajas-Martinz, Dongxiao Zhu, Xihui Wang, Changhao Chen, Ruijuan Zhuang, Jingjing Shi, Xueming Wu, YiJia Tao, Weidong Jin, Xiaoyan Wang, Dan Hu.J Transl Med 2017;15:78

Molecular Insights into Short QT Syndrome. Srikanth Perike, Mark D. McCauley _J Innov Card Rhythm Management._2018;(3):3065-3070

Structural interplay of Kv7.1 and KCNE1 is essential for normal repolarization and is compromised in short QT syndrome 2 (Kv7.1-A287T) Ina Rothenberg, Ilaria Piccini, Eva Wrobel, Birgit Stallmeyer, Jovanca Müller, Boris Greben, Natalie Strutz-Seebohm, Eric Schulze-Bahr, Nicole Schmitt, Guiscard Seebohm Heart Rhythm Case Report 2916;2:521-529 

Shortening of the Short Refractory periods in Short QT Syndrome Anna Rollin, Estelle Gandjbakhch, Carla Giustetto, Chiara Scrocco, Carole Fourcade, Benjamin Montell, Pierre Mondoly, Christelle Cardin, Carole Maupain, Fiorenzo Gaita, Philippe Maury J Am Heart Assoc. 2017;6:e005684. DOI: 10.1161/JAHA. 117.005684

Criteria for short QT interval based on a new QT-heart rate adjustment formula   Simon W. Rabkin  Journal of Arrhythmia 2017;33:525-527

The Phenotypic Spectrum of a Mutation Hotspot Responsible for the Short QT Syndrome Dan Hu, Jiancheng Zhang, Ryan Pfeiffer, Michael H Gollop, Jeff Healey, Daniel Toshio Harrell, Naomasa Makita, Haruhiko Abe, Yaxun Sun, Jihong Guo, Li Zhang, Ganxin Yan, Douglas Mah, Edward P Walsh, Harris B Leopold, Carla Giustetto, Fiorenzo Gaita, Agnieszka Zienchuk-Krajka, Andrea Mazzanti, Silvio G Priori, Charles Antzelevitch, Hector Barajas-Martinez JACC Clin Electrophysiol  2017;3(7):727-743

Recent Advances in Short QT Syndrome Oscar Campuzano, Georgia Sarquella-Brugada, Sergi Cesar, Elena Arbelo, Josep Brugada, Ramon Brugada Front. Cardiovasc. Med. 2018;5:Article 149

Long-term Follow-up of Patients With Short QT Syndrome: Clinical Profile and Outcome Ibrahim El-Battrawy, Johanna Besler, Volker Liebe, Rainer Schimpf, Erol Tülümen, Boris Rudic, Siegfried Lang, Christian Wolpert, Xiaobo Zhou, Ibrahim Akin, Martin Borggrefe J Am Heart Assoc 2018;7:e010073. DOI: 10. 1161/JAHA. 118.010073

Modeling Short QT Syndrome Using Human-Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes Ibrahim El-Battrawy, Huan Lan, Lukas Cyganek, Zhihan Zhao, Xin Li, Fanis Buljubasic, Siegfred Lang, Gökhan Yücel, Katherine Sattler, Wolfram-Hubertus Zimmermann, Jochen Utikal, Thomas Wieland, Ursula Ravens,  Martin Borggrefe, Xiao-Bo Zhou, Ibrahim Akin J Am Heart Assoc. 2018;7:e007394. DOI: 10. 1161/JAHA.117007394

Molecular Insights into Short QT Syndrome Shrikant Perike, Mark McCauley J Innov Cardiac Rhythm Management 2018;9(3):3065-3070

Impact of QTc formulae in the prevalence of short corrected QT interval and impact on probability and diagnosis of short QT syndrome Rui Providência, Nabeela Karim, Neil Srinivasan, Shohreh Honarbakhsh, Maria João Vidigal, Ferreira, Lino Gonçalves, Eloi Marijon, Pier D Lambiase Heart 2018;104(6):502-508

Sudden cardiac death in J wave syndrome with short QT associated to a novel mutation in Na v 1.8 coding gene SCN10A: First case report for a possible pharmacogenomic role Giuseppe Di Stolfo, Pietro Palumbo, Stefano Castellana, Sandra Mastroianno, Tommaso Biagini, Orazio Palumbo, Maria Pia Leone, Giovanni Luca, Domanico Rosano Potenza, Tommaso Mazza, Aldo A Russo, Massimo Carella Electrocardiol 2018;51(5)809-813

 

Tentative Screening Criteria for Short QT Interval in Children and Adolescents Daisuke Hazeki, Yumiko Ninomiya, Kentaro Ueno, Masao Yoshinaga Circ J 2018;82:2627-2633

QT Assessment in Early Drug Development: The Long and the Short of it Robert M. Lester, Sabina Paglialunga, Ian A. Johnson Int. J. Mol. Sci 2019;20:1324

Patient-Specific and Gene=Corrected Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes Elucidate Single-Cell Phenotype of Short QT Syndrome Fengfeng Guo, Yaxun Sun, Xiaochen Wang, Hao Wang, Jue Wang, Tingyu Gong, Xianchen Chen, Ping Zhang, Lan Su, Guocheng Fu, Jun Su, Shilong Yang, Ren Lai, Chenyang Jiang, Ping Liang Circ Res 2019;124(1):66-78

Learning from studying very rare cardiac conditions: the example of short QT syndrome Jules C. Hancox, Dominic G. Whittaker, Henggui Zhang and Alan G. Stuart Journal of Congenital Cardiology 2019 (doi.org/10.1186/s40949-019-0024-7)

Acquired short QT syndrome in a cancer patient treated with Toad Yan Huang, Yong Xu, Hector Barajas-Martinez, Dan Hu Pacing Clin Electrophysiol 2019;9:1273-1275

Successful radiofrequency catheter ablation of a premature ventricular contraction triggering ventricular fibrillation in a patient with short QT syndrome Yoshimasa Morimoto, Atsuyuki Watanabe, Hiroshi Morita, Nobuhiro Nishii, Kazufumi Manamura, Hiroshi Ito Heart Rhythm Case Report 2019;5:262-265


Sex-differences in short QT syndrome: A systematic literature review and pooled analysis Ibrahim El-Battrawy, Kim Schlentrich, Johanna Besler, Volker Liebe, Rainer Schimpf, Siegfred Lang, Katja E. Odening, Christian Wolpert, Xiaobo Zhou, Martin Borggrefe, Ibrahim Akin Eur J Prev Card 2020;27(12):1335-1338

The Short QTc Is a Marker for the Development of Atrial Flutter and Atrial Fibrillation Simon W. Rabkin, Jacky K.K. Tang Cardiology Research and Practice 2020 (doi.org/10. 1155/2020/2858149

Differences in Short QT Syndrome Subtypes: A Systematic Literature Review and Pooled Analysis Laura S. Raschwitz, Ibrahim El- Battrawy, Kim Schlentrich, Johanna Besler, Michael Veith, Gretje Rotenberg, Volker Liebe, Rainer Schimpf, Siegfred Lang, Christian Wolpert, Xiaobo Zhou, Ibrahim Akin, Martin Borggrede Frontiers in Genetics 2020;Volume 10: Article 1312

Short QT syndrome: The current Evidences of diagnosis and management Ivana P. Dewi, Budi B. Dharmadjati Journal of Arrhythmia 2020;36:962-966

Delayed diagnosis of short QT syndrome concealed by pacemaker implant due to sick sinus syndrome Ibrahim Ba┼čarici  Anatol J Cardiol  2020;23:110-6

Long-term prognosis of short QT interval in Korean patients: a multicenter retrospective cohort study Dae-Young Kim, Jae-Sun Uhm, Nin Kim, In-Soo Kim, Moo-Nyun Jin, Hee Tae Yu, Tae-Hoon Kim, Jong-Youn Kim, Boyoung Joung, Hui-Nam Pak, Moon-Hyoung Lee BMC Cardiovasc Disord 2021;21:17 (doi.org/10.1186/s12872-020-01824-30)